Open Policy Analysis

In the last two decades, governments and researchers have placed a growing emphasis on the value of evidence-based policy. However, while the evidence generated through research to inform policy has become more rigorous and more transparent, policy analysis — the process of contextualizing evidence to inform specific policy decisions (depicted in Figure 1) — remains opaque. BITSS recognizes that there is significant room for improvement in terms of how evidence is used in policy reports, as well as potential efficiency gains from increasing reproducibility and automation.

Figure 1: A simple model of policy-making where there is a consensus on research that is the best representation of specific phenomena (truth), and which policy analysis report is an accurate representation of gains and losses associated with a given policy choice (using research as one of the inputs).

BITSS supports Open Policy Analysis (OPA), an approach to policy analysis wherein data, code, materials, and clear accounts of methodological decisions are made freely available to facilitate collaboration, discussion, and reuse. OPA adapts and applies cutting-edge tools, methods, and practices commonly used for transparency and reproducibility in scientific research.

OPA is based on the following principles:

  1. Open output: The analysis should clearly pre-specify the output that will inform policy makers, and clearly identify the preferred set of estimates. Additionally, this principle entails properly communicating the underlying uncertainty and how the results vary with the underlying assumptions.
  2. Open analysis: All elements of the analysis should be easily accessible and readable for critical appraisal and improvement. This includes disclosing all methodological procedures and underlying assumptions behind the report.
  3. Open materials: All materials (raw data, code, and supporting documents) should be made publicly available to allow a policy report to be reproduced in its entirety with minimal effort.

Figure 2 below shows how OPA principles can be implemented in practice, including the relevant audience for each output (on the left), the corresponding output (in the middle) and proposed transparency tools and practices to implement them (on the right). To see what OPA looks like in practice, have a look at our Pilot Projects.

Figure 2: OPA principles and corresponding tools and practices.

In heavily contested debates, such as the effects of minimum wage policies, OPA can introduce clarity in how evidence is used by stakeholders on both sides of the debate. This then makes it possible for consumers of policy analysis to understand and critically assess the merits of different policy alternatives. Douglas Elmendorf, former Director of the U.S. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) provides an illustrative example of issues with the current state of affairs:

BITSS develops and tests tools, practices, and community standards for OPA, and supports policy analysis organizations in operationalizing OPA. Please contact BITSS Postdoctoral Scholar Fernando Hoces de la Guardia ( to learn how you can bring OPA to your institution or apply it to a specific policy report.

Panel Discussion on Open Policy Analysis with Hilary Hoynes (Goldman School of Public Policy, UC Berkeley), Matt Jensen (Open Source Policy Institute, American Enterprise Institute), Kevin Perese (US Congressional Budget Office), and Josh Rosenberg (GiveWell) at the BITSS Annual Meeting, Dec. 10, 2018 in Berkeley, CA.